Contoh Proposal Seminar Kewirausahaan Pdf Files

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  1. Proposal Kewirausahaan Makanan

In order to clarify the key terms used in this study,some definitions are put forward. Think-aloud have been described as 'eavesdroppingon someone's thinking.' With this strategy, teachers verbalize aloudwhile reading a selection orally. Their verbalizations include describingthings they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension. Thepurpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilledreaders construct meaning from a text.

The think-aloud strategy asksstudents to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading,solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachersor other students. Reading is a kind of activity in translatingwritten symbols into corresponding sound. Reading skills enable readers toturn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence,comprehension, and fluency. In this research, it was decided toimplement the think-aloud strategy because it was used as an instructionalapproach, and also because this strategy helped readers to comprehend moreeasily what was being read by them.

Afflerbach and Johnston cited by McKeownand Gentilucci (2007), claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method ofmeasuring the cognitive reading process, then as metacognitive tool to monitorcomprehension. In that sense, the think aloud is appropriate for this studybecause through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehensionprocess. Another definition of this strategyis provided by Pressley et al. In McKeown and Gentilucci’s (2007) work:“think-aloud is one of the 'transactional strategies' because it is ajoint process of teachers and students working together to constructunderstandings of text as they interact with it” (p. Through theinteractions that think aloud promotes, a better understanding of the texts mayemerge in the classroom. Think aloud is also a process in which readers reporttheir thoughts while reading (Wade 1990).

It helps students to reflect upontheir own reading process. Reading in the foreign language consists of graspingmeaning in the written language.

Proposal Kewirausahaan Makanan

In this case, reading foreign language is thegrasping of full linguistics meaning of what is to read in subject within thecommon experience of the culture of which the language is a central part. Hefurther maintains that linguistics means to include the denotation conveyed bylanguage to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that are receptive onlyby those have specific background information not known by the other speakersin general. In other word, there are some purposes of reading such as readingfor specific items of information, for general and detail information in agiven field, etc. Other types of reading, for example readings for literaryappreciation are properly the real of reading in the native language. There must be question on the text,this essential.

The questions are to help the pupils understanding every detailon the passage, for example, the passage is about “hide and seek”. It meansthat the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupilsunderstanding of the passage; the children are playing hide and seek in theplayground, and the question are (1) who is playing hide and seek in theplayground? (2) What are the children playing in the playground? (3) What arethey doing in the playground and where are they playing hide and seek? (a) reading is not a single skillbut an interrelated process of many skill, (b) reading is development process,in other words, reading comprehension develops sequentially as pupils nature,(c) there are developmental pattern from grade to grade and from year to year,but wide variations in reading ability exist among pupils in any grade or ofany age, and (d) there are no basic reading comprehension which can be taughtor learned once or for all, they are merely simpler or more difficult levels ofreading proficiencies, which can be taught to pupils who are ready to learn. Both views are non-productive at bestand the worst seriously impede progress.

Furthermore, the effort has been tocreate a model of the reading process powerful enough to explain and predicatereading behavior and sound enough to be a base on which to build and examinethe effectiveness of reading instruction. This model has been developed usingthe concepts, scientific methodology, and terminology of psycholinguistics, theinterdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought and language areinterrelated.


Firstly,intensive reading is reading activity that is being related to further progressin language learning under the teacher guidance. In this type of reading,control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis forelucidation of difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary.To the same extent, Finnonchiro (1983) also glanced that the intensive readingwhen the student’s attention should be focused on all expression, nationssound, structure and cultural allusions will be unfamiliar to them in passage. Secondly,extensive reading is developed at the student’s own pace according to hisindividual ability (Rivers, 1968 and Suhirman, 2002).

In this extent, theactivity is not completely controlled by the teacher. The students have learnerto read without the teacher’s role.

The extensive reading activity is mostlyconcerned with the purpose of training students to read directly and fluentlyby his/her own employment, without the aid of the teacher. Structures in the testwill be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly insuch a way that its meaning can be deduced from the context. From linguistics point of views,reading is recording and decoding process. Not like speaking which justinvolves an encoding process reading applies decoding process by which a readermust grasp and guess the meaning of written words used in writing scripts,reading the symbols to the oral language meaning (Anderson in Tarigan (1991)and Suhirman (2002)). In short, reading can be defined as “bringing meaning toand get meaning from points or written materials” (Finnochiro and Banama inTarigan, 1987, and Suhirman, 2002).

It is true by reading people get to knowthe other people scientific achievement, or some happening in other region ofthe country. Through reading we can improve our skill and enlarge our humandevelopment achievement. According to Sheng (2003) readingcomprehension questions measure student’s ability to read with understanding,insight and discrimination. This type of question explores the ability toanalyze a written passage from several perspectives, including student’sability to recognize both explicitly stated elements in the passage andassumptions underlying statements or arguments in the passage as well as theimplications of those statements or arguments. Because the written passage uponwhich the questions are based presents a sustained discussion of a particulartopic. Along with Godman’s idea, Ommagio(1986) also maintains that the efficient language users will take the mostdirect routine to their goal comprehension. He describes reading as a samplingprocess in which readers predict structures.

Clearly, Ommagio (1996) includedas in the comprehension process all three types of background knowledge:comprehenders make use not only of the linguistic information of the text, but alsoof their knowledge of the world and their understanding of discourse structureto make sense out the passage. In line with the above statement, as Ommagio(1986) cited from Kolers (1973) also maintains that reading is only incidentlyvisual.

Thus, the reader then contributes more information by the print on thepage. As the comparison of thisresearch, here are some researches of TheEffect Think Aloud Strategy Toward Students Reading Skill. The first researcheris Alexander Moreno cardenas ( 2009 ) with title “The Impact Of TheThink-Aloud Strategy In The English Reading Comprehension Of Efl 10th Graders,he found that the students increased their engagement in the activities becauseof the think-aloud strategy. Through the use this strategy they could interactand construct meaning from the texts at once when they developed the readingtasks.

Second, it is important to highlight that the role of the teacher as aguide was crucial in think-alouds because he could assist and foster studentsto use reading strategies such as predicting, visualizing, and prior knowledgein order to comprehend the reading texts. Being the teacher’s role only as aguide, students then are the main protagonists of the reading process. Third,another positive impact of the think-aloud strategy, is that studentsconstantly mentioned that they had an enhancement in some specific aspects ofEnglish language such as: pronunciation, vocabulary, and listening skill.

By teaching four language skill in interactively, thatis involves reading, listening, speaking and writing. In this case is limitedfor the reading skills itself to involve the pupils in learning activitiesi.e.; (1) To expands the pupils knowledge and art; (2) to motivates the studentto be a good personality in their country; (3) to expands the pupils socialintercourse.

So that in this case, the ability of the pupils will be increasedby using textbook with are published by Depdikbud (Government) and Yudistira(Private Publishing Company). Therecent study was an experimental research to find out the result of a certaintechnique. According to hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is oneof the precise methods to examine the cause and effect because of the fact,instruction toward a group and experimental sample. The instructional activitywas designed only to teach reading skill students by using Think aloud strategyas a techniques toward the experimental group, the group of sample would havetest to measure the effect that students get after treatment. The result of thetest would be analyzed and compare using statistical computation.

This research design will presentseveral characteristics; (1) it has two groups of experimental subjects ortreatment group and control group; (2) the two groups compared with respect twomeasurements of observation on the dependent variable; (3) both groups will bemeasured twice, the first measurement serve as the pre-test and the second asthe post-test; (4) measurement on the dependent variable for both groups willbe done at the same time with the same test; and (5) the experimental group manipulatedwith particular treatment. Population is represent entire/allsubject research. Nawawi ( 2003) in Iskandar ( 2009: 118) population is grandtotal of subject research which can be consisted of by the human being, object,animal, flora, symptom, assess the test or event as data source owning certaincharacteristic in a research.

While according to Sudjana ( 2005: 74)population is totality of all value which possible, result ofcounting/calculating or measurement, quantitative and also qualitative hit thecertain characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wishlearned by the nature. Related to the research problems,the writer used reading test as an instrument. Ary (1979: 216) states that atest is a set of stimuli present to an individual in order to elicit responseson the basic of which a numerical score can be designed.

Moreover, Heaton(1975: 89) states that the test used must be appropriate in term of our object,the dependable in the evidence provides, and applicable to our particularsituation. In this case, the researcher gave the students reading test in usingThink aloud strategy.

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Have you tried the above drivers? But take a look at the UNO board first, you should be able to identify the chip; It's typically near USB port and crystal-resonator. Image of 16u2 chip Image of ch340g If you can't read what's on the chip, use a magnifying glass or cellphone camera + light. //Edit: The driver pop-up states ft232r, I overlooked that. There have been some counterfeit FTDI chips though that causes problems; Some driver versions bricked the counterfeit chips, though MS has stopped distributing those //Edit2: IF you run into troubles with unsigned drivers,.I think I just discovered the answer to my own problem based on your feedback.

While digging up the information for my response to your questions, I discovered the specific com port that Windows had assigned to the Arduino (USB-SERIAL CH340 (COM11)). I selected that specific Com port in the Arduino program.and behold, it connected and is working just fine!Thank you for your willingness to help - it turns out that Windows already had the driver installed and the error was prominently located somewhere between the keyboard and deskchair.:).I am trying to work on a kit that is for school assignments but I get this: Any ideas? OK, Ive tried tried everything suggested here and everywhere else.

I cannot get windows 10 to recognize the USB port with the CH340 clones. Reinstalled FTDI drivers and then tried to go back to the CH341SER drivers but I keep getting the 'no 64 bit.INF found' error. Also tried several different cables. Post navigation.