A personal identification number sent to its user in a letter. The darkened paper flap prevents the number from being read by holding the unopened envelope to the light.A personal identification number ( PIN), or sometimes a PIN number, is a numeric or alpha-numeric used in the process of authenticating a user accessing a system.The personal identification number has been the key to flourishing the exchange of private data between different data-processing centers in computer networks for financial institutions, governments, and enterprises. PINs may be used to authenticate banking systems with cardholders, governments with citizens, enterprises with employees, and computers with users, among other uses.In common usage, PINs are used in ATM or POS transactions, secure access control (e.g. Computer access, door access, car access), internet transactions or to a restricted website. Contents.History The PIN originated with the introduction of the (ATM) in 1967, as an efficient way for banks to dispense cash to their customers.
The first ATM system was that of in London, in 1967; it accepted with machine-readable encoding, rather than cards, and matched the PIN to the cheque. 1972, issued the first bank card to feature an information-encoding magnetic strip, using a PIN for security., the inventor who patented the first personal identification number, was awarded an in the 2006.invented the first PIN-based (HSM), dubbed the 'Atalla Box', a security system which encrypted PIN and messages, and protected offline devices with an un-guessable PIN-generating key. In 1972, Atalla filed for his PIN verification system, which included an encoded and described a system that utilized techniques to assure telephone link security while entering personal ID information that was transmitted to a remote location for verification.He founded (now ) in 1972, and commercially launched the 'Atalla Box' in 1973. The product was released as the Identikey. It was a card reader and, providing a terminal with plastic card and PIN capabilities.
The system was designed to let and switch to a plastic card environment from a program. The Identikey system consisted of a card reader console, two customer, intelligent controller and built-in electronic interface package. The device consisted of two, one for the customer and one for the teller. It allowed the customer to type in a secret code, which is transformed by the device, using a, into another code for the teller. During a, the customer's. This process replaced manual entry and avoided possible key stroke errors.
It allowed users to replace traditional customer verification methods such as signature verification and test questions with a secure PIN system. In recognition of his work on the PIN system of, Atalla has been referred to as the 'Father of the PIN'.The success of the 'Atalla Box' led to the wide adoption of PIN-based hardware security modules. Its PIN verification process was similar to the later. By 1998 an estimated 70% of all ATM transactions in the United States were routed through specialized Atalla hardware modules, and by 2003 the Atalla Box secured 80% of all ATM machines in the world, increasing to 85% as of 2006. Atalla's HSM products protect 250 million every day as of 2013, and still secure the majority of the world's ATM transactions as of 2014.
Financial services PIN usage In the context of a financial transaction, usually both a private 'PIN code' and public user identifier is required to authenticate a user to the system. In these situations, typically the user is required to provide a non-confidential user identifier or token (the user ID) and a confidential PIN to gain access to the system. Upon receiving the user ID and PIN, the system looks up the PIN based upon the user ID and compares the looked-up PIN with the received PIN. The user is granted access only when the number entered matches with the number stored in the system.
Hence, despite the name, a PIN does not personally identify the user. The PIN is not printed or embedded on the card but is manually entered by the cardholder during (ATM) and (POS) transactions (such as those that comply with ), and in transactions, such as over the Internet or for phone banking.PIN length The international standard for financial services PIN management, -1, allows for PINs from four up to twelve digits, but recommends that for usability reasons the card issuer not assign a PIN longer than six digits. The inventor of the ATM, had at first envisioned a six-digit numeric code, but his wife could only remember four digits, and that has become the most commonly used length in many places, although banks in and many other countries require a six-digit PIN.PIN validation There are several main methods of validating PINs. The operations discussed below are usually performed within a (HSM).IBM 3624 method One of the earliest ATM models was the, which used the IBM method to generate what is termed a natural PIN. The natural PIN is generated by encrypting the (PAN), using an encryption key generated specifically for the purpose.
This key is sometimes referred to as the PIN generation key (PGK). This PIN is directly related to the primary account number. To validate the PIN, the issuing bank regenerates the PIN using the above method, and compares this with the entered PIN.Natural PINs cannot be user selectable because they are derived from the PAN. If the card is reissued with a new PAN, a new PIN must be generated.Natural PINs allow banks to issue PIN reminder letters as the PIN can be generated.IBM 3624 + offset method To allow user selectable PINs it is possible to store a PIN offset value.
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The offset is found by subtracting natural PIN from the customer selected PIN using 10. For example, if the natural PIN is 1234, and the user wishes to have a PIN of 2345, the offset is 1111.The offset can be stored either on the card track data, or in a database at the card issuer.To validate the PIN, the issuing bank calculates the natural PIN as in the above method, then adds the offset and compares this value to the entered PIN.VISA method. Main article:Rumours have been in e-mail circulation claiming that in the event of entering a PIN into an ATM backwards, police will be instantly alerted as well as money being ordinarily issued as if the PIN had been entered correctly. The intention of this scheme would be to protect victims of muggings; however, despite the being proposed for use in some US states, there are no ATMs currently in existence that employ this software. Mobile phone passcodes A mobile phone may be PIN protected. If enabled, the PIN (also called a passcode) for mobile phones can be between four and eight digits and is recorded in the. If such a PIN is entered incorrectly three times, the SIM card is blocked until a (PUC or PUK), provided by the service operator, is entered.
If the PUC is entered incorrectly ten times, the SIM card is permanently blocked, requiring a new SIM card from the mobile carrier service. PINs are also commonly used in smartphones, as a form of personal authentication, so that only those who know the PIN will be able to unlock the device. After a number of failed attempts of entering the correct PIN, the user may be blocked from trying again for an allocated amount of time, all of the data stored on the device may be deleted, or the user may be asked to enter alternate information that only the owner is expected to know to authenticate. Whether any of the former mentioned phenomenona occur after failed attempts of entering the PIN depends largely upon the device and the owner’s chosen preferences in its settings.Changing PIN It is easy to change mobile phone PIN by typing.04.(present PIN).(new PIN).(new PIN)#See also.References.